Mixed-methods research in language teaching and learning: Opportunities, issues and challenges

LTA 47 2Post written by A. Mehdi Riazi and Christopher N. Candlin based on a recent article in Language Teaching

Extended Abstract

Mixing methods from two supposedly incompatible research methodologies, namely, quantitative and qualitative, has received considerable attention over the last couple of decades from researchers in social and human sciences. This interest has resulted in recent years the emergence of the term mixed-methods research (MMR).

Using MMR, researchers are now able to investigate more complex research problems and research questions drawing on both quantitative and qualitative methodologies in a single study and thus enable more comprehensive inferences to be drawn concerning the research issue.

There are now specialised journals and books whose commitment is methodological pluralism and mixed-methods research, publishing a wide range of MMR studies from a variety of academic disciplines. Recognising the value of mixing methods as a departure from adherence to traditionally opposing paradigms has significant implications for theory and practice in applied linguistics in general, and language teaching and learning in particular.  It offers significant opportunities and challenges for both researchers and practitioners.

This state-of-the-art paper focuses directly on MMR in the domain of language teaching and learning by outlining and critically reviewing issues related to this newly developed research methodology. The paper has six sections. The first provides a context for the discussion of MMR through an introductory review of quantitative and qualitative approaches to research. In the second section we discuss the nature and scope of MMR, its underlying principles, and its techniques and procedures. We explain and illustrate the theoretical and practical aspects of MMR so as to provide a bird’s eye view of this integrated methodology for language teaching and learning researchers. In the third section we discuss trends in MMR in language teaching and learning research, reviewing 40 published papers with an MMR orientation in 30 journals related to language teaching and learning, covering one decade (2002–2011). This detailed review of the papers illustrates how researchers in the field have engaged with MMR and how they have conceptualised their studies within this new methodology. The review will be helpful to researchers currently undertaking MMR and to prospective language teaching and learning researchers. Issues and challenges facing MMR and its researchers are discussed in the fourth section, while in the fifth we explore and discuss the significance of replicating MMR studies in language teaching and learning. To do so, we select two example studies reviewed in section three explaining how they could be replicated and extended so as to produce more fully-fledged MMR studies. Finally, we conclude this State of the Art paper by presenting future prospects and directions for further developing mixed-methods research.

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